Category Archives: Wildlife

Spotted! Leopard Cubs in the Salient


This picture was taken by Augustine Ajuoga, the warden in charge of the Salient area of the Aberdares.

‘There were actually four cubs on the road, but by the time i got my camera out, two had run off. it is a rare sighting’, he informed us.

It is always great to see the wildlife nurture their young.

Disabled, but not Unable: Elephant Makes do with 3 legs

Stumbling around on three legs

This sub adult elephant seems to have beaten the odds by surviving with only 3-legs, and so far, is coping well. The disability does not appear to have been caused by any obvious external injury. Indeed, there is speculation that it could be a congenital defect.

Elephant Mum Gets Twins

twins_trunk_to_tail-adjusted.jpgElephant with twin calves spotted in the Aberdares

According to natural history, elephants are known to give birth to one calf. The oldest female always leads the group-(matriarch). Upon the death of the matriarch the next oldest female takes the lead.

At the age of around ten to twelve years, female elephants reach sexual maturity and after a gestation period of 20-22 months they give birth to one calf. However on very rare occasions, elephants have been reported to have given birth to twins.

Such a rare encounter was reported near the historical treetops lodge at Aberdare Salient. According to eye witness Cpl. J. Gathua, the twins are always with their mother struggling to reach for mammary glands. 

Story by: Augustine Ajuoga, Sector Warden (Salient), Aberdare National Park

The twins have not been named. ‘I have only spotted them once so far, and I am yet to determine their sex. Once I do, we can think about naming them,’ says Ajuoga.

Guardians of the Mountain Bongo – Conservation by the Community

The Eastern Mountain Bongo (Tragelaphus euryceros Isaaci) is a rare antelope only found in Kenya. It is believed that fewer than 200 animals now survive in the wild, mostly in the dense forest areas of the upper Aberdare mountain range. A few animals are also found in Mt. Kenya and Eburu. The bongo is a shy, elusive creature that in recent times has only been sighted by a handful of people.

  bongo-trio-trap-camera-shot.jpg[Bongo picture taken by trap camera] 

72-year old Peter Mwangi is among the few living humans that have seen Bongo in the wild. Born into a poor family of hunter-gatherers living in the Aberdares, he was inducted into the forest life from early childhood. Following in the footsteps of his father, he learnt honey gathering and hunting game for meat in the misty forests of the Aberdares through the 1940’s. He perfected tracking wildlife from spoor, examining hoof prints, droppings and even how twigs had been chewed to determine which animal had passed.

  peter-mwangi.JPG[Peter Mwangi] 

In the 1950’s and 60’s Peter’s tracking skills kept him in gainful employment. He worked as a tracker for Tony Archer, a professional game hunter, and later on for Don Hunt who captured live bongo for export to foreign zoos. Between 1967 and 1978 he helped Don capture 27 bongo.


By the turn of the new millennium, a wind of change was blowing in local conservation circles. The population of bongo had been decimated by habitat loss, poaching and bush meat hunting. Realization had dawned that unless drastic steps were taken, these beautiful animals would be lost forever. There had been no reported sightings of bongo in years, and many wondered if any were even left.


By 2003 an initiative to protect the bongo had come into being. The Bongo Surveillance Programme was conceived by Mike Prettejohn, a former game hunter-turned conservationist. Mike recruited a team from amongst the local community with experience in wildlife tracking to carry out surveillance of bongo habitat to determine their population and range. This team became known as the Bongo Surveillance Unit. Through mutual acquaintance Tony Archer, Peter was introduced to Mike and joined the team.


Mike, the architect of the surveillance programme, determines possible bongo areas using aerial patrol, plots the GPS coordinates and plans the teams’ activities. The ground surveillance teams use Mike’s data in the forest. A typical bongo surveillance operation in the forest lasts about 2 weeks and involves a 5 to 6 man team accompanied, for security, by armed Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS) rangers. From an initial base camp they split into groups of 3 and patrol an area for 3-4 days. They collect data on bongo tracks, droppings, signs of poaching activity, sightings of poachers, illegal loggers and any other relevant information. They set up trap cameras at areas such as salt licks known to be visited by bongo, and download the images taken. Their findings are compiled, analysed and shared with KWS.

  trap-camera-chip.jpg[trap camera inspection and download] 

Through this initiative, supported by Rhino Ark and various local and international donors, a clearer picture has begun to emerge about the bongo population and range. The bongos’ excellent hearing and adeptness at hiding make them hard to spot, and most evidence of their presence is indirect, through spoor, droppings and trap camera pictures. Peter is one of the lucky few to have seen bongo up close. In 2004 he sighted a group of 14 bongo at Wandare in the north eastern Aberdares, and in July last year he saw a bongo cow and calf.

  patrol-with-ranger.jpg[BSU patrol on the move] 

I posed the question to Peter of what role the local communities play in conserving or endangering the bongo. He shared an anecdote on how the most skilled bongo poachers were men of his generation, people he knew personally, and most of whom have passed on or retired and have not passed on their ‘trade’ to their descendants. The constant presence of the surveillance team in the forest has also acted as a deterrent to poachers as the likelihood of discovery is much increased. The members of the team, some of whom may have otherwise turned to poaching are gainfully employed and now appreciate the importance of conservation. Peter observed that many young people in the local communities are not familiar with the bongo, but that the schools outreach component of the bongo programme was beginning to make a positive impact.


I asked Peter why he does this work. His reply was simple: it is what he knows, he’s good at it and it has helped him provide for his family. Two of his sons have followed in his footsteps and are now members of the team, so the family legacy carries on into the next generation. Though soft spoken and slight of build, Peter exudes the energy of someone half his age. He still puts in as much field patrol time as any of the other team members and shows no sign of slowing down anytime soon – a truly remarkable feat.


[Peter (centre) and sons Laban (left) and Stanley (right)]


Local communities can, do, and should play a greater role in conservation. The experience of the bongo surveillance team, made up of community members clearly proves this point.




Mutant Buffalo Caught on Camera

The Aberdare ecosystem is rich in nature’s wonders as demonstrated by this female cape buffalo with extraordinarily long, drooping horns. Scientists attribute this to a rare generic mutation that affects horn growth, mainly in females. The Aberdares has a buffalo population numbering in the thousands, but this is only our second sighting in the last couple of years. The unusual sight was captured by a trap camera in the central Aberdares.


Female cape buffalo

Trap cameras are specialized digital cameras that are automatically triggered by nearby movement. The Bongo Surveillance Programme (BSP) is a Rhino Ark-supported initiative that has set up cameras at selected locations in the Aberdare ecosystem. The cameras photograph anything that crosses their path, day or night, but their main aim is to capture evidence of the elusive and highly endangered mountain bongo antelope. The BSP supports conservation of mountain bongo in the Aberdares ecosystem. A trap camera in the densely forested Salient area of the eastern Aberdares recently captured a rare image of a small herd of bongo.

Mountain Bongo at salt lick
More on the Bongo Surveillance Programme soon…